c\ All those who had participated in the assassination of Othmanwerepeople like Marwan ibn al-Hakam who killed Talha ibnal-Zubayr in thebattle al-Jamal, and forged the seal of Othman thatwas supposed to besent to the wali of Egypt, which of course wasthe main reason for theanger of the Egyptians against the caliph.
d\ Those who broke their allegiane to Imam Ali (a.s.), and began torebelagainst him, especially in the battles of Siffin, al-Jamal, andal-Nahrawan.
In fact, if Mu`awiyah, Talha, Zubayr, `Ayisha, and thechiefs of theKharijites would not have incited their followers toparticipate in battlesagainst Imam Ali (a.s.),then all the riots andarguments among theMuslims would not have occured - leadingthem to such a miserablesituation like that which they are living innowadays.
Nor would it havebeen possible for the deviators, theirreligious, or the hypocrites to leadthe Islamic ummah to thatcatastrophic deviation.
e\ Wasn't the assassination of Othman a plea to create twodestroyingbattles in which many of the Prophet's companionswere killed? Wasn'tthe battle of Nahrawan a logical result for thebattle of Siffin? Can anyonedeny that the active factors for inciting`Ayisha (the Prophet's wife) toparticipate in a battle in which shehad indeed disgraced the respect ofthe Holy Prophet (s.w.), werethe Umayyad and the Marwanian, andbecause of her many of thepious were martyred for their resistanceagainst that gang who hadgone astray?f\ Wasn't that gang the same gang who fought against Ali (a.s.)and hishousehold? Did not they deny the Aalul Bayt's virtues andfabricatedfalse hadiths which insulted them and eulogized theirenemies?Some Sunni ulama and researchers blame Mu`awiyah for whattheummah had faced, and they considered his acts contradictaryto theIslamic rules.
At the same time, some of them used toeulogizeMu`awiyah and began to justify his acts, deeds, anddeviations.
They callhim the writer of the revelation and the uncleof the believers, while thereare many other companions whodeserve this title more than him -people like Muhammad ibn AbiBakr.
Didn't Mu`awiyah fight Imam Hasan (a.s.), the son of the HolyProphet(s.w.), and after he made a treaty with Imam Hasan (a.s.)he broke hisoath and planned against Imam Hasan (a.s.)?Didn't he kill all the companions of the Holy Prophet (s.w.) such asHijribn `Adiyy without any reason or accusation except for thereason that heloves Ali and adheres to his way? Didn't he orderhis gang to insultImam Ali (a.s.) on the pulpit, in all states andprovinces, which lasted untilthe period of `Umar ibn `Abdil `Aziz?Wasn't Mu`awiyah the one whomthe Holy Prophet (s.w.) hadcursed(?)?Wasn't it right that Mu`awiyah had broken the terms of the peacetreatywith Imam Hasan (a.s.) by appointing his son Yazid as hissuccessor?Wasn't it Yazid who killed the son of the Holy Prophet(s.w.) (i.e.
ImamHusayn), invaded Mecca, and assassinated itsinhabitants? Was notMu`awiyah his son's partner in all thosecrimes?Why did `Ayesha (the Holy Prophet's wife) rebell against thesuccessorof the Holy Prophet (s.w.), i.