A Journal of Islamic Studies
 Cheyne, Op. Cit., pp. 5 ff.
 Anwar al-Jindi, Al-Fusha lughat al-Qur'an, Beirut, n.d., p. 31.
 Ibid, p. 45.
 Ibid., p. 72.
 Ibid., p. 72. See also Cheyne, Op. Cit., p. 1.
 Al-Jindi, Op Cit.,p. 77
 In a discussion with Dr Baynurza Hayit, a prominent Turkistani scholar who lives and writes in West Germany, at the third annual meeting of the American Council for the Study of Islamic Societies held at Villanova University in May 1986, he informed me that Turkic languages enjoyed a high degree of mutual intelligibility and interaction during that period in which the Arabic script was in use, and that this feature began to disappear following the switch of writing system in some of these languages.
 Al-Jindi, Op. Cit., p. 81.
 William H. Harris and Judith S. Levy, The New Columbia Encyclopedia, New York and London, 1975, p. 1670.
 Banilmadina is a large resort on the Costa del Sol in southern Spain, Guadalquivir is a river which runs through the ancient city of Seville, and the Alcazar is the famous palace in that city.