The Foundations And Concepts of Islam
There is another section of religious adherents who have no revealed Book from Allaah, even though they possess an inherited book which is attributed to the founder of the religion like Hindus, Magians, Buddhists, Confucians and Arabs before the advent of Muhammad.
There is not a nation that does not have some knowledge and carry out some activities by which their worldly interests are achieved. This is the general knowledge which Allaah endowed every human being, even animals; for the animal is also guided as to how to attain what benefits it like food and drink and to avert what harms it; and Allaah has created in it the love for the former and aversion for the latter. He says,
“Glorify the Name of your Lord, the Most High, Who has created (everything) and then proportioned it. And Who has measured (preordainment for everything), and guided (i.e., showed mankind the right as well as the wrong paths and guided the animals to pasture).”
He also says, informing us of what Prophet Moosaa told Pharaoh,
“Our Lord is He Who gave to each things its form and nature, then guided it aright.”
He also informs us about Prophet Ibraaheem that he said of His Lord, “Who has created me and it is He Who guides me.”
It is known to every sane person – who has the least reflection and sense of thinking – that adherents of religions are better in useful sciences and righteous deeds than those with no religion. There is therefore, no good thing found with non-Muslims among adherents of other religions except that the Muslims possess what is better and more perfect, so the adherents of religions possess what others do not possess. For sciences and deeds are two types:
First: That which is achieved through intelligence and reason like astronomy, medical sciences and vocations. Though adherents of religions and atheists are equal in possession of these things; the adherents of religions are better in them. As for those things that cannot be known through mere reason like theology and religious sciences, these are prerogatives of the followers of religions. There are among this kind of knowledge that which can be proved by logical evidences, so the Messengers guided men unto how logical evidences proof that; which is both logical and legal.
Second: What cannot be known except through the information given by the Messengers. This kind of knowledge and deeds cannot be achieved through human reason, like knowledge about Allaah, His Names and Attributes, the bliss that is in the Hereafter for whoever obeys Allaah and the punishment for those who disobey Him, the explanations on His injunctions and the information about the past Prophets and their peoples and so on.