Then the Imam shall deliver his sermon, and shall be more serious in his entreaty and asking the Favour (of Allah). It is better to select some of the Du’as which have come down from the (fourteen) Infallibles, Peace be upon them, as the one which has come down from Amir al- Mu’minin (Peace be upon him, which begins with the words (in Arabic) : ‘Al Hamdu lillãhi sŕbighin ni’am... .“(Praise be to Allah, Bestower of Ample boons... .).lt is better for the Imam to deliver two sermons in this prayer, as is the case with the prayers for the two Eids, delivering the second with the hope (that it would be desirable to Allah).
Problem # 4 As it is permissible to offer this prayer at the time of dearth of rains, so it is also permissible to offer it in the event of drying up of rivers and springs.
Problem # 5 If there is delay in the acceptance of the prayer, the people shall repeat the prayer until they are blessed with the divine Favour, with the Grace of Allah,
If their prayer is not accepted at all, then there are some considerations, which are in the knowledge of Allah alone. We have no right to protest, nor to lose the hope of Benediction of Allah, the Exalted. It is permissible to continue praying and suffice with fasting three times, which may not be linked with the fast for three other days offered with the hope (that they would be desirable to Allah). Likewise, the prayer may also be offered repeatedly with the hope (that it would be desirable to Allah).
3. The Ghaffilah Prayer
The Ghafilah prayer is one of the recommended prayers. It consists of two Rak’ats between Maghrib and Ishã’ prayers. Its details have already been mentioned under the First Introduction of the Chapter on Salãt (Prayers).
4. The Prayer on the Night of the Burial of the Dead
The prayer offered on the night of burial of the dead is also one of prayers recommended. Its details, have also been mentioned earlier under the Chapter on Burial, Rules concerning the Dead.
5. Prayers on First of Every Month, Prayer for Hãjat, etc.
The prayers on first of every month, the prayer for Hãjat (Demand), etc., which are also among those recommended, have been mentioned in detail in their relevant places.
It is obligatory for a person on journey to reduce the number of Rak’ats of prayers having four Rak’ats, provided that the following conditions are fulfilled. No reduction takes place in the number of Rak’ats in case of the Morning and Maghrib prayers. Following are the required conditions
1. The Distance. The distance for one way going or coming both together should be eight Farsakhs, with the condition that the one way distance (for going or coming) should not be less than four Farsakhs, regardless whether a person’s going is followed immediately by his return, and it has not been discontinued by his passing a single night or more during the journey, or has been discontinued not in a way that it may cause the discontinuation of the journey itself, nor are there other causes for the discontinuation of the journey. In such an event, the person shall exercise the reduction in the number of Rak’ats, and shall also break his fast, while in the latter case it is strictly cautious to offer full prayers and also compensate for the fast.
Problem # 1 A Farsakh is equal to three miles, while a mile is equal to four thousand cubits, whose length is equal to the breadth of twenty four fingers, and each finger is equal to the width of seven grains of barley, and each barley is equal to the breadth of seven average hair of a Turkish horse (or a pony). If the distance is less than that, even if to a minimal extent, the person on journey shall offer unreduced prayer.
Problem # 2 If the one way distance for going is five Farsakhs, and one way return is three Farsakhs, it shall be obligatory to offer the prayer with reduced number of Rak’ats. If a person repeats going and coming several times to a distance of less than four Farsakhs until the total distance reaches eight Farsakhs or more, there shall be no Qasr (or reduction of two Rak’ats in the number of Rak’ats of the prayers having four Rak’ats), even if it has exceeded the number in which Qasr is allowed. So it is indispensable for Qasr that the total distance covered by once going and coming should be eight Farsakhs.
Problem # 3 If there are two routes for a town, the farther having a longer distance than the closer one, and a person undertakes the longer route, he shall be entitled to exercise Qasr.
If a person undertakes the shorter route, (so that he covers a total distance of less than eight Farsakhs), he shall be required to offer prayers with full number of Rak’ats. If a person under takes a journey on a shorter one-way route so that the one-way route may cover a distance of less than four Farsakhs, he shall offer full prayers, even if he should return from the longer route, covering a total distance of 8 Farsakhs, required for Qasr.
Problem # 4 The criterion for calculating the distance is the boundary wall of a town, and in case of a town having no boundary wall, the last house of the town. This is the criterion for towns other than the extra-ordinarily big towns. In case of extra-ordinarily big towns, the end of its district or quarter shall be the criterion for calculating the distance in case it has separate districts or quarters in a way that they may be like villages lying adjacent to one another. Otherwise, there shall be difficulty (in applying the rule of Qasr in their case), as, for example, a town having quarters joined with one another. In case the distance from the end of a town does not reach the amount permissible for Qasr and if it is calculated from his house, it does reach that amount, then it shall be more cautious to offer the prayer both with and without Qasr though the opinion according to which the person’s house is considered to be the criterion for reckoning the distance is not far from being acceptable.
Problem # 5 If a person intends to go to a town, but has doubt as to whether it is at a distance allowing Qasr, or believes it to be otherwise, and then during the journey, he comes to realize that it lies at a distance allowing Qasr he shall exercise Qasr even if the remaining distance is not upto the amount allowing Qasr
Problem # 6 The amount of distance is established through knowledge and evidence. If there is the testimony of a single witness, it would be more cautious to offer prayer both with and without Qasr case a person doubts whether the distance has reached the permissible amount or not, or has some presumption about it, he shall continue to offer his prayer unabated. In such case, it is not obligatory to exert to attain the knowledge about the truth in a way that it could be troublesome. Of course, according to the more cautious opinion, it is obligatory to seek information through making queries or the like. If a common man has doubt about the amount of distance required by Islamic law, and is not able to follow (as required by a Mujtahid’s Taqlid), it would be obligatory on him to offer the prayer both with and without the Qasr
Problem # 7 If a person believes that a distance is up to the amount allowing Qasr and so he exercises Qasr but later it transpires to be otherwise, it shall be obligatory on him to offer the prayer (with unabated number of Rak’ats). If a person believes that the distance he has covered is not upto the amount allowing Qasr and so he offers prayers with unabated number of Rak’ats, and then it transpires that it was a distance allowing Qasr to the stronger opinion, it shall be obligatory on him to offer the prayer again with Qasr if there is sufficient time for it. In case the due time has passed, according to the more cautious opinion, he shall of the compensatory prayer with Qasr.
Problem # 8 The act of adopting a circular distance is the journey from the starting point to the corresponding point. If a person intends to have a circular movement, he shall exercise the Qasr even if he has his business before reaching the corresponding point, provided that his journey upto that place is four Farsakhs, though it is more cautious for him to offer his prayer both with and without Qasr if his business is before reaching the corresponding point.
2. Intention of Completing the Distance allowing Qasr. If a person intends to go up to a distance less than the one allowing Qasr and then after reaching his destination he intends to go to a distance which is again less than the required distance, and so on, he shall offer full prayers, even if the total distance covered by him is equal to or more than the distance allowing Qasr Of course, if he starts to return, he shall exercise Qasr, provided that he covers the required distance, and has also intended to cover that much distance. The same rule shall apply if the person has no definite intention, and does not know how much distance he is going to cover, as, for example, when he goes in search of an animal which has escaped and does not know which way it has gone, then he shall not exercise Qasr, when going in search of the animal, even if he has covered a distance more than required for Qasr Of course, he may shall exercise Qasr his return on the condition mentioned earlier (that the distance on his return must be 8 Farsakhs). If, during the journey, he determines to cover a distance reaching the distance allowing Qasr though by piecing together with the conditions required in it, he shall exercise Qasr In case he intends to cover a distance of less than four Farsakhs, and waits for some companions with whom he may travel if he finds them otherwise not, or his journey is dependent on obtaining something, but is not sure of getting some companions or obtaining the thing, it shall be obligatory on him to offer full prayers.
Problem # 9 The criterion for Qasr is the intention of a person to cover the required distance even if it is attained in several days, provided that in the meantime nothing happens which may cause his journey to cease to be called journey in usual practice, as when he covers daily an ordinary amount of distance by way of a pleasure trip or the like, and not for bearing the hardship of journey, he shall offer full prayer throughout that time, though it is more cautious for him to offer the prayer both with and without Qasr.
Problem # 10 It is not a condition in the intention of covering the required distance that it should be independent, rather it would be sufficient even if it is done in the wake of another person, regardless whether it is done out of obedience as is the case with a wife, or under duress as is the case with a prisoner, or voluntarily as is the case with a servant, provided that he knows that the person whom he is following intends to cover the legally required distance ; otherwise, he shall continue to offer full prayers. It is more cautious for such a person to obtain the necessary information, though, according to the stronger opinion, it is not obligatory, and it is not obligatory on the person allowed to inform his follower, even if it is supposed that the person following another must obtain the information (about the intention of the person he is following).
Problem # 11 If a person following another believes that the person whom he is following does not intend to cover the required distance, or has doubt about it, and during the journey he comes to know that he intends to cover the required distance, if the remaining distance is up to the amount allowing Qasr, it shall obligatory on him to exercise Qasr; otherwise, apparently it shall be obligatory on him to offer full prayers.
3. Subsistence of the Intention of Journey. If a person changes his intention before reaching the distance of four Farsakhs, or hesitates in the mailer, he shall be required to offer full prayers. As for the prayers he has already offered by way of Qasr, he shall be required to repeat them neither within their due time nor after it. If the change or hesitation has taken place after reaching four Farsakhs, he shall continue exercising Qasr even if he does not return the same day when he intends to return before ten days.
Problem # 12 It is sufficient in the subsistence of the intention that the intention to continue the journey itself should subsist even if the place changes, as, for example, a person intends to travel to a certain place, and it was situated on a distance allowing Qasr, but during the journey he changes it to another place, so if the distance covered together with the remaining distance comes to the distance allowing Qasr then according to the most authentic opinion, he shall exercise Qasr throughout that period, in the same way as he would exercise Qasr had he been intending to make the journey without the specification of the place, so that he starts the journey intending to go to any of the places each of which are situated at a distance allowing Qasr but he does not specify them and has left it to the time of his arrival at a limit common between them.
Problem # 13 If a person starts hesitating before reaching four Farsakhs, then reverts to his determination, so if he has not covered any distance in the state of hesitation, he shall continue exercising Qasr although what remains is not up to the required amount allowing Qasr even when pieced together. In case he has covered part of the distance in a state of hesitation, but the remaining distance is upto the amount allowing Qasr he shall exercise Qasr If the remaining distance is not up to the amount allowing Qasr there shall be no difficulty in the obligation for offering full prayers, provided that the remaining distance along with the distance passed in a state of hesitation does not come to the amount allowing Qasr If, however, the total distance minus the distance passed in the state of hesitation comes to the amount allowing Qasr then it would be more cautious for him to offer the prayers both with and without Qasr, though it is not far from likely to revert to Qasr particularly when the distance covered in a state of hesitation was insignificant.
4. The Person should not intend to discontinue his journey by staying for ten days or more during the journey or by passing through his hometown. For example, if a person intends to cover a distance of four Farsakhs with staying during the journey or in its beginning, or to pass from his home town situated on the way, he shall offer full prayers throughout that period. The same rule shall apply if he has some hesitation with regard to his stay or passing from his hometown in a way repugnant to the intention of covering the distance allowing Qasr. To this category also belongs the case when there is likelihood of occurrence of something disturbing the continuation of the journey, or occurrence of something necessitating a stay during the journey or passing from his hometown being considerable in the eyes of the sane persons. But in case of something not considerable, like falling sick, etc., which would be against the consideration by the sane persons, he shall exercise Qasr.
Problem # 14 If, before starting his journey, a person intends to stay (for ten days) and covers some distance, then before covering eight Farsakhs decides to stay (for ten days), or pass from his hometown, or was in a state of hesitation, and then changes his decision, and decides against both the things (namely, staying for ten days or passing from his hometown), then if the remaining distance after the change of decision is up to the amount allowing Qasr even if pieced together, he shall exercise Qasr otherwise not.
Problem # 15 If a person does not intend to stay (for ten days), and covers some distance, then before reaching eight Farsakhs, he intends to stay (for ten days), and then changes his intention, and decides against staying (for ten days), then if the remaining distance after the change of intention since his decision is up to the amount allowing Qasr he shall exercise Qasr without there being any difficulty in this rule. The same rule shall apply if the case is not so, and he has not covered any distance between the two decisions, while the total distance comes to the amount allowing Qasr.
If, however, he has covered some distance between the two decisions, then whether the distance he has covered before the change in his decision shall be amalgamated with the remaining distance minus what had been covered during the period of hesitation between the two decisions or not, in case the total distance comes to the amount allowing Qasr In this case, it is more cautious to find out a via media by offering the prayers both with and without Qasr though it is not far from being preferable to revert to the Qasr particularly when the distance covered during the two decisions happens to be negligible, as its instance has already been mentioned.
5. The journey must be lawful, so that if it is unlawful, the person shall not exercise Qasr regard less whether the journey itself is unlawful, as escape from army (duty) or the like, of its purpose is unlawful, as for example, the journey has been undertaken for committing highway robbery or collection of Mazalim for a (tyrant) king, or the like. Of course, it shall not fall under this category if what is forbidden takes place during the journey, such as absence (from duty), or the like, which was not the purpose of the person’s journey, in which he shall continue to exercise Qasr Rather, according to the stronger opinion, it shall also not fall under this category if the traveller rides a usurped animal. Likewise, if the journey happens to be contrary to what is obligatory for him which the person has failed to fulfill, as, for example, the person happens to be under debt and the creditor has demanded him to pay the debt and the possibility of payment of the debt lies in his hometown and not while he is on journey. Of course, caution must not be given up by offering the prayers both with and without Qasr in case the journey has been undertaken by giving up what was obligatory on the person, though the decision in favour of offering full prayer in this case is not devoid of force.
Problem # 16 If a person is obeying an oppressor, he shall exercise Qasr if he is compelled to undertake the journey, or when his purpose of journey is to get rid of the oppression, or such other valid purposes. If, however, the purpose of his journey is to assist the tyrant in his tyranny, or his obedience to the tyrant is tantamount to his support for his tyranny, or strengthening his power, while strengthening his power is forbidden, the person on journey shall perform full prayer.
Problem # 17 If the purpose of a person’s journey is obedience to Allah, but implicitly he has some unlawful purpose as well, while he attributes his journey to obedience to Allah, he shall exercise Qasr If, on the contrary, the purpose of his journey were unlawful, but as subservient to it he has the purpose of obedience to Allah, or both the purposes were common in a way that had both the purpose were not there, he would not have undertaken the journey, or both the purposes are independent in his view, he shall offer full prayers. He should, however, not give up caution by offering the prayers both with and without Qasr in case other than the former, i.e., when the purpose of obedience to Allah is subservient to the unlawful purpose, in which case he shall offer full prayers.
Problem # 18 If the beginning of his journey was in obedience to Allah, but during the journey he happened to have some unlawful purpose, then if he has covered his journey with the latter purpose, he shall forfeit the permission to exercise Qasr though he might have covered a long distance. How ever, he would not be required to repeat the prayers in full which he has already offered with Qasr. In case he has not covered any journey with the unlawful purpose, it would be more in keeping with the principles of law, that he would not forfeit the permission to exercise Qasr. It is more cautious for him to offer prayers both with and without Qasr in case he has not covered any distance with the unlawful purpose. Again, if he reverts to the purpose in obedience to Allah after traversing part of the land, and the remaining distance comes to the amount allowing Qasr though pieced together, so that the distance of going to his destination were four Farsakhs or more, it shall also be obligatory on him to exercise Qasr. The same rule shall apply in case the remaining distance is not up to the amount allowing Qasr but the aggregate of what he had already covered along with the remaining distance after discarding the distance covered with the unlawful purpose comes to the amount allowing Qasr. In this case, however, according to the more cautious opinion, it is better to add full prayer to the one offered with Qasr. If, however, the aggregate does not dome up to the amount allowing Qasr except by adding the distance covered with the unlawful purpose, then the obligation for offering full prayers shall not be devoid of force, though it is more cautious to offer prayers both with and without Qasr. If, in the beginning the purpose of a person’s journey was unlawful, but then he shifted to obedience of Allah, he shall exercise Qasr if the remaining distance comes up to the amount allowing Qasr though as a result of piecing together. Otherwise, it is more cautious to offer prayers both with and without Qasr though continuing to offer full prayer would not be devoid of force.
Problem # 19 If, in the beginning, the purpose of a person’s journey was unlawful. Then he determined to keep fast, and shifted to obedience to Allah. If it occurred before noon, it shall be obligatory on him to break the fast, provided that the remaining distance comes up to the amount allowing Qasr even as a result of piecing together. Otherwise, his fast shall be valid.
If, the shifting to obedience to Allah occurred after noon, the fast would not be far from being valid, but it is more cautious to complete it, and then keep fast in compensation as well. If, in the beginning, the purpose of a person’s journey was lawful, and then it shifted to an unlawful purpose during the journey, if it occurred after breaking the fast or after noon, his fast shall not be valid. If the shifting took place before both the above (i.e. after breaking the fast or after noon), then there shall be hesitation in the validity of his fast. So he should not give up caution by keeping fast and compensating it later.
Problem # 20 If a person returns from an unlawful journey, then, if it were after repentance or occurrence of something which would exclude the journey from being a part of unlawful journey, as, for example, the purpose of his return were something separate, not a return to his hometown, he shall exercise Qasr. Otherwise, the obligation of offering full prayers is not far from being the case, though, it is more cautious for him to offer prayers both with and without Oasr.
Problem # 21 To the category of unlawful journey is included a journey for the purpose of hunting for pleasure sake, as is undertaken by the adorers of the world. If, however, it were for the sake of obtaining food, the person shall exercise Qasr. If the journey were undertaken for the purpose of trade, in that case the person shall break his fast. As regards the prayers, there is some difficulty (in deciding about the rule in its case). It is more cautious to offer the prayers both with and without Qasr.
To the category of unlawful journey is not included a journey undertaken for pleasure sake alone, so that in its case, it is not obligatory to offer full prayers.
6. The person should not be one of those who carry their homes along with them, like some of the inhabitants of the jungle who wander around the lands and stay in places having water, grass- lands and pastures, but do not have a permanent abode. To this category also belong the sailors and boatmen who reside in the ships and boats. In case of such people, it is obligatory on them to offer full prayers while on their special journeys. Of course, in case they undertake the journey for the purpose of Hajj or pilgrimage or the like, they shall also exercise Qasr like others (accompanying them). If anyone of them undertakes a journey in search of a special abode or a place of water and pastures, and the distance covered by him is upto the amount allowing Qasr then there is difficulty in deciding about the obligation of offering prayers with or without Qasr, and so caution must not be given up by offering prayers both with and without Qasr.
7. Undertaking journey should not be a part of his profession, as the drivers, postmen, owners of taxis and the like. To this category also belong the boatmen and sailors when their residence lies outside the boat or ship, and they undertake the voyage as a profession.
If, however, they carry their abodes with them, then they would belong to the previous category.
Anyhow, it is obligatory on all of them to offer full prayers during their journey when it is part of their profession, even if their journey is meant for themselves and not for others, as a driver carrying his own luggage or the luggage of his family from one place to another.
Of course, such people shall exercise Qasr in a journey which is not a part of their profession, as when a sailor leaves his ship and undertakes a journey for pilgrimage, etc.
The criterion for excluding the journey from one allowing Qasr is one which falls under the category of a journey undertaken as a profession or trade. It shall apply only in case the person makes a considerable journey as a profession, and it is not a condition to undertake the journey twice or several times. Of course, the obligation for exercising Qasr is not far from being applicable in the first journey, even if it falls under the category of journey undertaken as a profession, though it is more cautious to offer prayers both with and without Qasr in this case, and the second journey, and deciding in favour of offering full prayers in case of the third journey.
Problem # 22 If a person’s profession is carrying luggage in summer excluding winter or vice versa, then apparently it shall be obligatory on him to offer full prayers during (the journey undertaken as a) profession, though it would be more cautious to offer prayers both with and without Qasr. As regards the case of the leaders of the caravans who undertake journey during the special months of Hajj, apparently it is obligatory on them to exercise Qasr.
Problem # 23 It is a condition for the continuation of application of journey as a profession necessitating offering full prayer that the person should not stay in his own town or any other town for ten days even without intention; otherwise, the rule of the journey as profession shall cease to apply in his case and he shall revert to exercising Qasr but only in his first journey excluding, the second, not to speak of the third. But he should not give up caution by offering prayers both with and without Qasr in the first journey if he has stayed in a town other his own for ten days without intention. Rather it is more cautious to offer prayers both with and without Qasr also in the second and third journeys in all circumstances, or when he stays in his own town (for ten days) with or without intention.
Problem # 24 If a person’s profession is not to undertake journey, but something has happened to him necessitating him to undertake several journeys, he shall exercise Qasr as is the case with a person having some job in a town, but he happens to visit the place several times. The same rule shall apply to a person the distance from whose house, for example, to the tomb of Imam Husayn is up to the amount allowing Qasr and he vows or decides to visit the tomb on the night of each Friday. The same rule shall apply to the amount allowing Qasr and he goes to the town daily, then apparently it shall be obligatory on him to exercise Qasr during the journey and in the town which is not his home town.
Problem # 25 A shepherd whose job is to travel as a shepherd, regardless whether he has some special place or not, or a trader who tours around for his trade, or a tourist who has no home and whose job is tourism, may also be included in the sixth category. Anyhow, it shall be obligatory on all of them to offer full prayers.
8. Traveler’s Arrival in Place of Permission. So Qasr cannot be exercised before the traveler’s arrival in the place where Qasr is allowed. The limit of permission is the place where the traveler may not hear the sound of Adhãn (call to prayers) (of his own town), and the walls (of his home town) or its shapes, but not their shadows, may become out of sight. Caution must not be given up by the materialization of both (i.e. absence of hearing of the sound of Adhãn and the invisibility of the walls) simultaneously. It is also a condition for the non-audibility of the sound of Adhŕn and the disappearance of the walls (of his home town) should be due to long distance and not due to some other reason.
Problem # 26 It is a condition for exercising Qasr that the traveller must reach the place from where Qasr is allowed, when he starts his journey from his home town.
But is it a condition to arrive at the place allowing Qasr when he starts his journey from the place where he has stayed (for ten days) and from the place where he has passed thirty days in a state of hesitation, or not? There is hesitation in deciding about it, and so caution must not be given up in both cases.