Problem # 2 It is obligatory to reply to greeting during the performance of prayers by preferring the reply to whatever part of the prayer one is busy in, though, according to the stronger opinion, the saluting person may have preferred the latter to greeting. It is more cautious to maintain similarity to the greeting in its reply as regards the nouns being common or proper, and the number being singular or plural, though, according to the stronger opinion, it is not necessary.
In case of other than the prayer, it is recommended to give a better reply, as in reply to Salãmun ‘alaikum (Peace be on you), one must say: “ ‘Alaikumussalãm va rahmatullãhi va barakãtuh”, (Peace be on you too, and Allãhs Mercy and His Benediction)
Problem # 3 If a person uses incorrect language in greeting in a way that it does not cease to be greeting, it is obligatory to reply him in correct language. If (the language is so incorrect that) it ceases to be a greeting, then it is not permissible to reply during the performance of prayer.
Problem # 4 If the person greeting is a discreet child, it is obligatory to reply to his/her greeting. According to the more cautious opinion, the intention should not be to follow the Quran; rather its non-permissibility is strong.
Problem # 5 If a person greets a group of persons one of them being the person offering the prayer, then it is more cautious for him not to reply if a person other than himself has replied it. If a person is a member of a group, and a person greets them, and he doubts whether he intended to salute him or not, it would not be permissible for him to reply (during the performance of the prayer).
Problem # 6 It is obligatory to make the addressee listen to one’s reply to greeting given during the prayer, etc., in the sense that the person replying must raise his voice to the usual extent so much so that if there is no hindrance in listening the addressee would listen to it. If the person greeting is at such a distance that it is not possible for him to listen to the reply, then apparently it shall not be obligatory on the person greeted to reply. So it is not permissible for him to reply during the performance of the prayer. If a person is at a distance so that one is required to raise his voice in order to make him listen to it, it shall be obligatory on him to raise the voice, except when it is troublesome, in which case, according to the more cautious opinion, it would be sufficient for him to make signs if it is possible to make the other party understand thereby. If it were during the performance of the prayer, then there is hesitation in its being obligatory to raise the voice and make the addressee listen to it, and it is more cautious to reply by means of signs, if possible.
In case the greeting person were deaf, then, if it is possible to make him understand the response even by means of signs, it would not be far from being obligatory to respond in the usual manner. Otherwise, if it is not possible, it would be sufficient to reply without the usual manner by means of something other than signs.
Problem # 7 It is obligatory to respond to the greeting immediately in the usual manner, so that it is not permissible to delay the response in a way that it may no more be considered a response to the greeting. If a person delays the response to that extent out of insubordination or forgetfulness or some other excuse, it will be dropped (i.e. cease to be a response). So it is not permissible (to do so) while offering prayers, and it is also not obligatory in other cases.
If a person doubts whether the response has been delayed to the extent mentioned, even then it would not be permissible to respond during offering the prayer, as also it is not obligatory in other cases.
Problem # 8 Taking initiative in greeting is recommended as a collective duty of all, as also responding to it is also a collective duty. If a group of persons enter a place where there is another group of persons, it is sufficient as a recommended duty for a single person from among the entering persons to greet and a single person from among those already present there to respond.
Problem # 9 If a person greets one of two persons, and they do not know as to whom he meant to greet, it shall not be obligatory on both to respond, nor shall it be obligatory on them to investigate and ask as to whom the person greeting meant to greet, though it would be more cautious if both of them respond in case they are not offering prayer at that time.
Problem # 10 If two persons greet each other simultaneously, it shall be obligatory on each of them to respond to the other, even if one of them happens to greet the other subsequent to the other If the case is reverse, so that each of them should greet in response under the impression of that the other has greeted him, it shall not be obligatory on either of them to respond to the other. If a person greets another in response under the impression that the other person has greeted him, though the other person has not greeted him, and the person who has been greeted is cognizant of it, according to the stronger opinion, it would not be obligatory on him to respond, though it would be more cautious to respond; rather caution is better in all circumstances.
Fifthly. Laughter even if forcibly. Of course, there is no objection if done inadvertently, as there is no objection in smiling even if intentionally
Laughter means laughing loudly when the sound revolves in the throat According to the more cautious opinion, to this is added as a rule laughing which consists of only sound, and even if it consists of the sound as well as the sound revolving in the throat supposing the person to have controlled himself from laughing when, for example, his mouth becomes full of laughter and his face turns red and he start trembling. In such case his prayer is not rendered void except when its very appearance is changed.
Sixthly, weeping deliberately and loudly on some mundane loss, except when one starts weeping for an error in prayer, or some matter relating to Hereafter, or while asking for some mundane thing from Allah, the Exalted, particularly when the thing asked for is preferable from the point of view of Shari'at, in which the prayer shall not be rendered void. If, however, the weeping does not consist of sound, it is more cautious to offer the prayer again, though its not being rendered void is not devoid of force. If a person is overwhelmed with weeping causing invalidation of the prayer under compulsion, it is more cautious for him to offer the prayer again; rather its being obligatory is not devoid of force.
As regards permissibility of weeping on the leader of all martyrs (i.e. Imam Husayn), May our lives be sacrificed for him, there is hesitation and difficulty (in accepting it), and so caution must not be given up.
Seventhly, every act which changes the appearance of prayers in a way that it would deprive the prayer of its name as prayer, though a little, renders the prayer void deliberately or inadvertently.
As regards an act which does not change the appearance of the prayer, if it causes failure to observe uninterrupted succession in the prayer in the usual sense, according to the more cautious opinion, it would invalidate the prayer in case it were deliberate, but not when it were unintentional.
In case the act does not cause failure to observe the uninterrupted succession, then if it were deliberate, it would not render the prayer void, not to speak of the case when it was unintentional, even if it is a great deal like moving the fingers, sign by hand or the like to call some one, or killing a snake or scorpion, carrying a baby, placing it on the ground, taking it in one’s lap, nursing it or the like which does not cause interruption in succession nor does it change the appearance of the prayer.
Eighthly, Eating and drinking, even if were in a small quantity, according to the more cautious opinion.
Of course, there is no objection in swallowing the particles of food which have remained in the mouth or between the teeth, though it is more cautious to refrain from it.
Caution must not be given up by avoiding to keep sugar in the mouth, even if in a small quantity, so that it may dissolve and may slip down the throat bit by bit, even if does not cause any change in the appearance of the prayer nor does it cause failure in the uninterrupted sequence.
There is no difference in the application of the rules mentioned whether the prayer is obligatory or supererogatory, except in turning the face from the Qiblah in offering a supererogatory prayer while walking. In case it were a non-supererogatory prayer, according to the more cautious opinion, the prayer shall be rendered void.
This is to the exclusion of the case of a thirsty person who is busy in Du’ã in a Vitr prayer who intends to keep fast the same day, if he is afraid that the day may dawn, while the water is before him and requires to take only two or three steps, it would be permissible for him to walk and drink water to his fill, even if it takes a long time, provided that he has not done anything else invalidating the prayer, though when he intends to return to his former place, he must return backward so that his back may not be towards the Qiblah.
According to the stronger opinion, the person should confine himself to drinking water without eating or drinking other than water, even if those other acts may require a little time, as also it is more cautious to confine this act to the Vitr prayer and not other supererogatory prayers. It is not far from its not being confined to reciting Du’ã, but to this may be added other cases, though it is more cautious to confine it to reciting the Du’ã.
More cautious than it is to confine to the case even when one feels thirsty during offering the Vitr prayer. Rather, according to the stronger opinion, there is no exception if a person were thirsty and then he starts offering the Vitr prayer with the hope that he would drink water during the recitation of the Du’a before the day is dawned.
Ninthly, Uttering the word Ameen after completing the Sürat al-Fatihah (Chapter 1 of the Quran) except by way of Taqiyyah (Dissimulation), in which case there is no objection, as is the case who does it inadvertently.
Tenthly, Doubting the number (of Rak’ats) in prayers other than those having four Rak’ats from among the daily obligatory prayers, and doubting in the first two Rak’ats (in prayers having four Rak’ats) due to the reasons to be explained, God willing, in their relevant place.
Eleventhly, Reducing or adding a part in all circumstances when it were a pillar (of the prayer), and doing so deliberately in case it were other than a pillar (of the prayer).
Problem # 11 Following acts are disapproved in addition to what you have previously under stood: Blowing the place of prostration provided that it would not produce two letters; otherwise, according to the more cautious opinion, one must abstain from it; heaving a sigh, bewailing, spitting with the condition mentioned earlier and the caution explained previously, vain talk, cracking the fingers, stretch one’s body, yawning voluntarily, controlling urination or evacuation of bowels provided that it is not to the extent of being harmful in which case one must refrain from it, though nevertheless the prayer shall be valid.
Problem #12 It is permissible to discontinue the obligatory prayer voluntarily. A person may discontinue it for of losing his own life, or the life of one who is dear to him, his honour, or considerable property, or the like. Rather in some of these cases it is obligatory to discontinue the prayer, but in case he fails to discontinue it out of insubordination, he shall be considered to have committed a sin, but his prayer shall be valid.
According to the more cautious opinion, it is also not permissible to discontinue voluntarily a supererogatory prayer, though, according to the stronger opinion, it is permissible.
Chapter on Salat al-Ayãt (Prayers for Eclipse or Frightening Acts of God)
Problem #1 Salãt al-Ayãt is offered for a solar or lunar eclipse, though partial, an earthquake, every incident which is frightening for the common people, regardless whether it is heavenly like an unusual black, red or yellow whirlwind, extra-ordinary darkness, an outcry, a loud sound, a fire appearing in the sky, or the like, or earthly, according to the more cautious opinion, like caving in or the like. It shall not be of any importance if the incidents are not frightening (to the people in general), nor in case of the events which are frightening to a few people.
The existence of fear is not a condition in the solar and lunar eclipses or an earthquake. The Salat al-Ayat is obligatory in these incidents in all circumstances.
Problem # 2 Apparently the criterion for the solar and lunar eclipses is the applicability of the name to the eclipses, even if has not been caused by the usual cause of the earth and moon siding with each other, and it is sufficient for the eclipse to have occurred due to some other planets or other reasons.
Of course, if the eclipse is so minor that it cannot be observed through the ordinary ocular perceptions, though it may be observed by some having extraordinary ocular perception or it could be discerned through artificial equipments, then apparently no heed is to be paid to it, even if the eclipse has taken place due to one of the two usual causes.
Similarly, no heed shall be paid to it if it disappears quickly as when some of the atmospheric rocks happen to pass in front of the son or moon causing disappearance of their light and this condition may end quickly.
Problem # 3 The time for offering the prayer for the eclipse is from the beginning of the eclipse to the beginning of its end. Caution must, however, not be given up by hastening to offer the prayer before its end, so that if a person delays it upto its end, he shall offer the prayer neither with the intention (Niyyat) of offering it on its due time nor as a compensatory one, but only with the intention of seeking closeness (to Allah) absolutely.
As regards an earthquake or the like in whose case mostly the time is not enough for offering prayers, as the thud or loud sound represents the causes and not the times. Their occurrence entails the obligation for offering prayer. If a person fails to offer the prayer due to insubordination, it would continue to be an obligation on him throughout his life. All these prayers are to be offered with the intention (Niyyat) of being offered on due time (Ada).
Problem # 4 The obligation is meant exclusively for those who happen to be present in the place of the incident, so that the prayer for such incidents is not obligatory on others.
Of course, if a place is adjacent to the place of incident in a way that it is considered to be a single place, according to the stronger opinion, that place shall also be linked with the place of incident.
Problem # 5 The incident, its time and its duration is determined by knowledge and the evidence of two morally sound persons, rather by the evidence of a single morally sound person, according to the more cautious opinion, or, according to the more cautious opinion, also by the information of an astronomer whose information is trustworthy, though it is not according to the stronger opinion.
Problem # 6 This kind of prayer is obligatory on every Mukallaf (a sane, adult person bound to fulfil religious duties). According to the stronger opinion, the obligation drops in case of a menstruating woman or a woman having puerperal blood. In case of the prayers whose time is determined by Shari'ah, it is not obligatory on such women to offer compensatory prayers, nor are they obliged to offer other compensatory prayers. This rule applies to the women having abundant menstrual or puerperal blood. As regards others, there are detailed rules for them. Anyhow, caution is better.
Problem # 7 If a person has no knowledge about the occurrence of an eclipse until its end, and the eclipse has also not been full, he shall not be required to offer a compensatory prayer.
In case, however, if a person has had knowledge about the occurrence of the eclipse, but he failed to offer the prayer, though out of forgetfulness, or the eclipse had been full, it shall be obligatory on him to offer a compensatory prayer.
In case of other incidents, if a person delays offering prayers deliberately or out of forgetfulness, it would be obligatory on him to offer compensatory prayer as long as he is alive.
If, however, a person does not attain knowledge about the eclipse until its time is over, it is more cautious for him to offer the required prayer, although its being non-obligatory is not devoid of force.
Problem # 8 If a person receives the information about the eclipse though a group of persons who are not morally sound, and he has no knowledge about their being truthful, but after the time is over, it transpires that their information was true, apparently it shall be treated as if the person was ignorant of it, and so it shall not be obligatory for him to offer compensatory prayer, provided that the eclipse has not been full.
The same rule shall apply if a person is informed about the eclipse by two witnesses whose moral soundness is not known to him, but after the time is over, their information is con firmed, though, according to the more cautious opinion, the compensatory prayer is to be offered particularly in the latter case; rather caution must not be given up.
Problem # 9 A Salãt al-Ayãt consists of two Rak’ats, each Rak’at having five Ruku’s, the total being ten Ruku’s.
Its details are that, as in a (daily) obligatory prayer, a person is required to recite Takbirat al-lhrãm along with the expression of intention (Niyyat), then recite Surat al- Hamd (Chapter 1 of the Quran) and some other Surah of the Quran, then should perform Ruku’ (kneel down), then raise his head, then again recite Surat al-Hamd and another Sureh of the Qur’àn, perform Ruku’ and raise his head then again recite as before until he has repeated it five times in the same order, then he should perform prostration twice after raising his head from the fifth Ruku’. Then he should stand up and repeat again what he had done before, then recite Tashahhud and Salãm.
It makes no difference if the person recites the same Surah in all times or different Surahs each time. It is also permissible to divide a single complete Surah in each Rak’at of the five Rak’ats, so that after the Takbirat al-Ihram, he may recite the Surat al-Hamd and then after it recite one verse or more or less, and then perform Ruku’, and then raise his head and then recite a part of the same Surah in continuance of what he had recited earlier, and then perform the Ruku’ until he has finished the Surah and then perform the fifth Ruku’, and then perform prostration, and then stand up and repeat what he had done in the first Rak’at, so that in each Rak’at he shall recite Surat al-Fatihah once and one complete different Surah.
It is permissible to recite in the second Rak’at the same Surah one had recited in the first Rak’at, or some other Surah. But is not permissible to recite a part of a Surah in the whole Rak’at, as also it is not permissible to recite the Surat al-Fãtihah more than once in the first Qiyãm, except when he has completed the Surah, for example, in the second or third Qiyãm, so that it is obligatory on him to recite Surat al-Fãtihah in the following Qiyãm after the Ruku’, and then another Surah or a part thereof. In the same way, it is obligatory to recite Surat al-Fatihah in its Qiyãm every time he performs Ruku’ after completing a Surah, contrary to the case when he performs the Ruku’ after reciting a part of a Surah, so that he shall recite the Surah from where he had left it, without reciting Surat al-Hamd again, as already explained.
Of course, if a person performs the fifth Ruku reciting a part of a Surah, and then performs prostration and then stands up for the second Rak’at, then according to the stronger opinion, it shall be obligatory to recite Surat al-Fâtihah and then recite the Surah from where he had left it. However, caution must not be given up by performing the fifth Ruku the end of the Surah and start a second Surah after reciting Surat al-Hamd.
Problem #10 The conditions applicable in the Salat al-Ayãt are the same as in the daily obligatory prayers, etc., and all that has already been understood or will be understood later in respect of what is obligatory or recommended in Qiyãm, Qu’ud (sitting) Ruku’and prostration, as well as the rules of omission and doubt about the excess or reduction of Rak’ats, etc.
If a person has doubt about the number of Rak’at in two Rak’ats of the prayer, the prayer shall be void as is the case in every obligatory prayer having two Rak’ats, because it also belongs to the same category, although each of its Rak’ats has five Ruku’s.
If in such prayer, a Ruku’ is reduced or added deliberately or inadvertently, the prayer shall be rendered void, as it is a pillar of the prayer.
The same rule applies to the Qiyam linked with the Ruku’.
If a person has doubt about its Ruku’, the person should perform the Ruku’, if its time has not passed. If it has passed, the person should continue his prayer. The prayer shall not be void unless he comes to realize about the reduction or excess of the Ruku’ his doubt relates to the number of the Rak’ats. For example, he may not know it is the fifth Ruku’ in which case it would be the last of the first Rak’at or the sixth Ruku’ in which case it would be the first Ruku ‘of the second Rak’at.
Problem # 11 It is recommended in a Salat al-Ayat to recite loudly regardless whether it is offered at night or in the day, including even the prayer offered for solar eclipse, as well as the Takbir every time the person kneels to perform the Ruku’ or rises from it except when he rises from the fifth and tenth Ruku’s, when he says “Sami’ Allàhu liman hamidah” (who has been praised has heard), and then performs prostration.
It is also recommended in this type of prayer to prolong it, particularly in the prayer for solar eclipse, and recite long Surahs like Surah’ Yasin” (Chapter 36 of the Quran), al-Rum (Chapter 30 of the Quran), al-Kahf (chapter 18 of the Quran), or the like.
It is also recommended to complete the Surah in each Qiyam, and sit on the mat for offering prayer reciting Du’â and Dhikr until the end of the eclipse, or repeat the prayers if he has already finished it before the end of the eclipse.
It is also recommended to complete the Surah in each Qiyam, and sit on the mat for offering prayer reciting Du’a and Dhikr until the end of the eclipse, or repeat the prayers if he has already finished it before the end of the eclipse.
It is also recommended in Salat al-Ayat to recite Qunut in each second Qiyam after the recitation of a Surah of the Quran, so that in both the Rakats there would be a total of five Qunuts. It is also permissible to be content with two Qunuts, one before the fifth Ruku’ but offered with the intention (Niyyat) of hope (that it would be desirable to Allah), and the other before the tenth Ruku. It is also permissible to suffice with the last one.
Problem # 12 It is recommended to offer the Salat al-Ayat with Jama’at, and the Imam is responsible particularly for the recitation of the Surahs for the followers as is the case with the daily obligatory prayers, but not for other acts and words.
It is more cautious for a person offering prayers with Jama’at to join the Jama’at before the first Rukat or in it in the first or second Rakat in order to maintain the order of his prayer.
Problem # 1 If a person fails to be clean of the major pollution, his prayer shall be rendered void, regardless whether done deliberately, erroneously or with the knowledge or out of ignorance, contrary to the case of a minor pollution the details of which have already been mentioned under its relevant section and the other sections relating to the conditions of time, facing Qiblah, covering the private parts, etc.
If a person fails to fulfil the essential elements of his prayer deliberately, including even a movement in the obligatory recitations or Dhikrs of the prayer, his prayer shall thereby be rendered void.
The same rule applies if he adds some part deliberately in words or action, without there being any difference in its being a pillar or otherwise; rather regardless of its being in conformity with or contrary to the other parts of the prayer, though the verdict about declaring the prayer void is in case the excessive part is contrary to the other parts. Rather if it is not a fundamental part of the prayer it is not free from hesitation and difficulty (in accepting the rule).
It is a condition in the excessive part in other than the pillars of prayer to perform some- thing as if it is included in the prayer or is one of its parts. So it is not included in the causes for invalidation of the prayer in case a person adds some recitation (of a Surah of the Quran), Dhikr or Du’a during the prayer, if he has not added it as a part of the prayer. So there is no objection in such addition as long as it does not change the very appearance of the prayer, in the same way as there is no objection in the external actions which are allowed during prayers such as scratching the body (with nails) or the like, in case they do not interrupt succession of the acts of prayer or change its very appearance, as mentioned earlier.
As regards the unintentional additions in prayers, if a person adds a Rak’at or a pillar of Ruku’ or the two prostrations in a Rak’at or Takbirat al-Ihram inadvertently, his prayer shall thereby be rendered void, though there is difficulty in accepting the rule particularly in case of the latter. As regards the addition of the Qiyãm which is a pillar of the prayer, it does not take place except by the addition of Rukü or Takbirat al-Ihram. With regard to the addition of intention (Niyyat) as it represents the expression of the very purpose of the prayer, one cannot consider it an addition, and when it is said to mean remembering in the heart, its addition is not harmful, as the addition of anything which is not a pillar of the prayer does not render the prayer void, even if it may entail the performance of two prostrations for error, according to the more cautious opinion, the details of which will follow.
Problem # 2 If a person reduces something out of the essentials of his prayer inadvertently, and does not realize it till after the passage of its place, then, if it were a pillar, his prayer shall be rendered void, otherwise it would be valid, and he shall have to perform prostration for error to be mentioned in its proper place., or he shall be required to compensate for the parts forgotten if what is forgotten is Tashahhud or one of the two prostrations. Nothing is compensated from among the forgotten portions other than these two. If a person realises the failure of performance of a portion during its proper place, he must perform it even if it is a pillar of the prayer, and repeat what he has done afterwards. By passage of the proper place is meant the entering in the pillar next to it, or when the place of performance of a forgotten portion is an act and its place has passed, such as the Dhikr in a Ruku’ prostration which is forgotten, and the person recalls it after rising the head from it.
If person forgets the performance of a Ruku’ until the performance of the second prostration or forgets the two prostrations until the performance of the Ruku in the next Rakat, his prayer shall be rendered void, contrary to the case when he forgets the performance of Ruku and recalls it before the performance of the first prostration, or he forgets the performance of the two prostrations, and comes to realize before the Rukü’, so that he must come back and perform what is forgotten, and should repeat what he had done previously, though they are to be performed subsequently according to the order of succession.