Likewise, the Adhan and Iqamat shall not drop if the prayer is declared invalid due to the Imam being a profligate with those offering the prayer behind him knowing it or due to some other reason.
Similarly, (the Adhan and Iqamat shall not drop), if the place of the two prayers is not the same, so that one of them has been within the mosque and the other on its roof, or if one of them has been on a very long distance from the other.
Whether this rule is exclusively applicable to a mosque or it is applicable to other places too, is a question in which there is difficulty (in answering it). So caution must not be given up generally in the mosque as well as other places. Rather, it is not far from being likely that it is not exclusively applicable to a mosque.
Likewise, caution must not be given up in case a person's prayer and that of the Jama'at have not been both with the intention of being offered on the due time, as when in case of one or both have been offered after due time, regardless whether it is his own or on behalf of another voluntarily or against payment.
Similarly, if the time of both has not be the same, as when the previous Jama’at was for the Asr, while a person intends to offer Maghrib prayer.
In cases where there is some difficulty (in decision), there is no objection if one resorts to Adhan and Iqamat with the hope (of their being desirable to Allah).
Sixth Preliminary of Prayer: Complete Presence of Mind and Heart
A person offering prayer must have complete presence of mind and heart through-out his prayers, regardless of its words and actions. So nothing is counted as prayer from a devotee but what has been done in such condition. It means full attention towards the prayers and to what he utters and complete attention towards the Worshipped Being, whose Majesty is Glorified. He should be cognizant of His Greatness and the glory of His Dignity. He must sever himself from everything other than Him. He should find himself as if in the presence of the greatest of all the great kings of kings addressing Him and invoking His Favour. Once he is cognizant of all this, an immense awe shall enter his heart. Then he shall see himself responsible for negligence in the fulfillment of his duties and obligations, and shall be frightened. Then he shall realize the abundance of His Favour, and shall hope to receive His Reward. He shall find himself in a state of hope and fear, and this is the quality of the accomplished ones.
This quality has several degrees and innumerable ranks according to the statures of the worshippers. He must have humility and submission and peace of mind and heart and sobriety. He must have cheerful appearance and should apply perfume, brush his teeth and comb his hair before starting his prayers. He must offer his prayers like one bidding farewell, and should renew his penitence, invocation and asking forgiveness. He must stand like a humble slave in front of his Master. He should be sincere while uttering the words “We worship but Thee and ask help but from Thee”. He must not utter these words while he is still the adorer of his own desires and asking the help from others than his own Master.
He must also make all endeavors for removing the hindrances lying in the way of the acceptance (of his worship) like self-conceit, jealousy, pride, back-biting and avoidance of the payment of Zakãt and non-fulfillment of all due rights which are the real impediments in the way of acceptance (of the prayers).
The actions during prayer are of two kinds: Obligatory (Wãjib) and Recommended (Masnünah).
The obligatory actions are eleven. They are: Intention (Niyyat), Takbirat al-Ihrãm, Standing, Kneeling, Prostrations, Recitation, Dhikr, Tashahhud, Taslim, Order, and Uninterrupted Sequence (Muwãlãt).
In the following lines it will be explained that in case what is mentioned as Pillars of Prayers cause invalidation of the prayer if exercised in excess or reduced deliberately or by error, but one cannot imagine of any excess in Intention (Niyyat) due to its mentioning the very purpose, and if it is not mentioned loudly but expressed in the heart, any excess in it shall not do any harm. Those actions that do not form the pillars of the prayer do not cause invalidation of the prayer if there occurs any excess or imperfection in them inadvertently but not deliberately.
Rules Concerning Intention (Niyyat)
Problem # 1 Intention (Niyyat) consists of the purpose of an act, and there is a condition of wishing closeness to Allah, the Exalted and obedience to His Command. It is not obligatory to express it loudly, as it is something relating to the heart, as it is not obligatory to express it in the heart or speak in the imagination or present it in the mind, so that the person must only bring it into his thinking and the treasure of thought, f or example, that I am offering such and such prayer in obedience to His command; rather, the mere purpose is sufficient, and that means the brief purpose effective in the implementation of an act, which should appear as a result of the aims within himself in a way that it may rid him from error and negligence, and his act must enter in the category of acts of one doing act with full authority like all his other acts done with intention and full authority, while the cause of his actions and the impulse behind them is obedience or the like.
Problem # 2 Sincerity is a condition in intention, so that if it is mixed with something which negates sincerity, the act becomes void, particularly hypocrisy which spoils every thing in any way, regardless whether it is there at the beginning, during the performance of an act, and whether the portions of the act are obligatory or recommended.
The same is the case of hypocrisy in the qualities relating to an act like the prayer offered in a mosque, with Jama’at, or the like. The hypocrisy after the performance of an act is also forbidden, though it does not render the act void, as one should say that he has done an act for the sake of worldly interests like praise, admiration, rank or wealth. It has been related from the Prophet, Allah’s Blessing be on him and his Progeny, about a hypocrite: ‘A hypocrite shall be called with four names on the day of judgment: O profligate!, O infidel!, O rebel!, O loser! Your acts have been lost and your reward has been rendered null and void. You shall have no deliverance today. Ask your reward from one for whom you used to perform your acts.”
Problem # 3 If the recommended or preferred actions are performed without hypocrisy and are meant as having secondary importance, while the principal purpose of the person has been to offer prayers in simple obedience to the command (of Allah), there is no objection. If the case is otherwise, his actions shall be rendered void.
Similar is the case when those secondary acts have been intended as part of the person’s actual purpose in a way that if they are not connected with one another, there would be no cause or impulse.
According to the more cautious opinion, in all cases the act shall be nullified if the purpose is common or even subordinate adjunct, not to speak of it when both the acts are independent.
Problem # 4 If a person raises his voice loudly at the time of Dhikr or recitation (of Surahs) in order to let the other learn it; it shall not be nullified when the basic purpose of both had been obedience (to Allah’s command).
Similarly if his prayer is performed in a particular place or time for one of the approved purposes, in a way that the actual purpose has been obedience (to Allah’s command) and the purposes of selecting the place or time due to cold or the like.
Problem # 5 It is obligatory to fix, though briefly, the category of the prayer which he is offering purposely, as, for example, he must mention the intention of a single prayer if he owes a single one, or in case he owes several prayers, he must mention the intention of the first or the second.
Problem # 6 It is not obligatory to express the Intention of offering the prayer on its due time or after the due time once a person has mentioned, though briefly, the intention of offering a prayer having the quality of being offered on its due time or after it, as, for example, the Zuhr or Asr prayer. So if he intends to offer the Zuhr prayer which he owes presently as obligatory and it has not been due after the lapse of its due time, it shall be sufficient (to mention the Zuhr prayer).
Of course, if he owes it also as one after its due time, it would be indispensable for him to clarify as to which one he intends to offer, and whether it is obligatory for today or otherwise. If he intends the obedience to (Allah’s) command, and he assumed that there was sufficient time and so he offered with the intention of offering within the due time, but later it transpires that the time had lapsed, his prayer shall be valid and it shall be a prayer offered as Qadã’ (i.e. after the lapse of its due time), in the same way as he mentions the intention of offering a prayer as after its due time, but later it transpires that its time had not lapsed, it shall be valid and shall be counted as one offered within its due time.
Problem # 7 It is not a condition to mention the intention of offering a prayer as full or diminished (Qasr) in their respective places of obligation, nor where it is upto the person to offer either of them. If, for example, he starts the Zuhr prayer with hesitation whether after first Tashahhud he should recite Salàm in the second Rak’at or should annex them with the next two Rak’ats, his prayer shall be valid. Rather if he determines to offer either of them, according to the more apparent opinion, it shall not be binding on him, or he can even decide against it in the last. Rather, according to the stronger opinion, they are not determined by determination, and there is no need to renounce the determination, and Qasr takes place by Tasleem after two Rak’ats, in the same way as full prayer takes place with the annexation of the first two Rak’ats with the last two Rak’ats without the prior intention having anything to do in it.
If a person intends to offer Qasr prayer, then after completing the two prostrations doubts between the second and third Rak’at, he shall decide in favour of third Rak’at and shall cure his prayer from invalidity without any intention of renunciation. Rather, it is not far from determining the action according to the verdict of doubt. He should, however, not give up caution with the intention of renunciation in such cases, then making cure and then repeat the act.
Problem # 8 It is not obligatory to express intention of obligatory or recommended prayer. Rather it is sufficient to have a general intention of closeness (to Allah). It is, however, more cautious to have intention of both.
Problem # 9 It is not obligatory to have detailed imagination of the prayer, rather brevity is sufficient.
Problem #10 If, during the prayer, a person intends to discontinue it, or intends to do something which nullifies prayer despite being aware that it is repugnant to prayer, then if he completes the prayer in such state, it shall be void. Similarly if he completes some of the portions of the prayer with the same intention, and then returns to the first intention and suffices with what he has already performed, (the prayer shall be invalid).
If, however, he returns to the first intention before doing anything, the prayer shall not be nullified, in the same way as, according to the stronger opinion, it shall not be nullified if he completes it, or performs some of the portions of the prayer in that state, in case he is not aware that it is repugnant to prayer as mentioned. It is more cautious in all such cases to complete the prayer and repeat it.
Problem # 11 If he doubt during his prayer whether he has had the intention of offering Zuhr prayer or Asr prayer, and knows fully well that he has not offered the Zuhr prayer, he shall decide it to be the intention of Zuhr prayer in case the time is not exclusively meant for Asr prayer. The same shall be the rule if he doubts whether he is offering Zuhr prayer. If, however, at the time exclusively meant for Asr prayer, he knows that he has not offered the Asr prayer, he shall discontinue the prayer, and start the Asr prayer again, if there is time left for offering even a single Rak’at, and subsequently offer Zuhr prayer in the way it is after its due time.
In case there is no time left even for a single Rak’at, he shall nevertheless discontinue the prayer, and offer compensatory prayers for both Zuhr and Asr. It is more cautious not to leave the completion of the Asr prayer even if there is time left for a portion of a Rak’at, and then offer compensatory prayers for both Zuhr and Asr. If, however, he does not know to have offered Zuhr prayer, then it is not far from being permissible not to pay heed to his doubt, but, according to the more cautious opinion, he should offer compensatory prayer for Zuhr too. In case he knows that he has already offered Zuhr prayer, he shall discontinue the prayer and offer the Asr prayer again. Of course, if he is busy offering Asr prayer, and doubts whether at the beginning he has had the intention of offering Asr prayer or Zuhr prayer, he shall decide that from the beginning he has had the intention of offering Asr prayer.
Problem # 12 It is permissible to shift the intention from one prayer to another in the following circumstances.
1. In case of two successive prayers, for example, Zuhr and Asr or Maghrib and Ishã’, if a person starts the second before the first erroneously or out of forgetfulness, so that it is obligatory to shift to the first prayer if he comes to realize it during the performance of the second prayer, and has not surpassed the place from which he can shift, contrary to the case when he comes to realize after he has completed the second prayer or after he has surpassed the place from where he could shift, as in case he has started the kneeling of the fourth Rak’at of Ishã’ prayer when he comes to realize that he has not offered the Maghrib prayer, in which case he cannot shift to Maghrib prayer, rather, in such case the second prayer shall be valid, and the person shall offer the first prayer subsequently in case of first supposition when he comes to realize it after completion of the second prayer. Rather even in case of the second supposition, the rule is not devoid of force, though it is more cautious to complete the prayer, and then offer the Maghrib and Isha prayers in successive order.
The same rule shall apply in case of two successive compensatory prayers, as in case the Zuhr and Asr prayers or Maghrib and Ishã’prayers have been left unoffered in a single day, and a person starts offering the second compensatory prayer before the first, and then comes to realize it. Rather this is the rule generally in all compensatory prayers according to the more cautious, though not stronger, opinion.
2. If a person starts his presently due prayer, when he comes to realize that he owes a prayer. In such case it is recommended that he should shift over to the compensatory one in case there is sufficient time left, except when he is afraid of losing the preferential time for the one he is presently busy in offering, then there shall be hesitation in shifting from the present to the compensatory one, rather its being otherwise shall not be devoid of force
3. Shifting from the obligatory prayer to the supererogatory prayer. This takes place in the following two occasions. Firstly, in the noon on Friday when a person has forgotten reciting the Suratal-Jum’ah (Chapter 62 of the Quran) and recited some other Surah, and reached its half or more. Secondly, when a person was busy with prayer when the Jamã’at started, and he fears losing it, then it is permissible for him to shift to supererogatory prayer, and complete two Rak’ats of the prayer in order to join the Jamã’at.
Problem # 13 It is not permissible to shift from supererogatory prayer neither to the obligatory one, nor from supererogatory to supererogatory, even in case like the obligatory prayer there is an exclusive time for it and the regular sequence.
Similarly, it is not permissible to shift from a lapsed prayer to the presently due one, so that if a person starts a lapsed prayer and then recollects during its performance that there is very short time left for offering the presently due prayer. So he discontinues it and starts the presently due one, but it is not permissible to do so.
Likewise, it is not permissible in case of two presently due prayers having regular sequence to shift from the previous to the subsequent one, contrary to vice versa. So if he starts the Zuhr prayer under the impression that he has not offered it, but during its performance he comes to realize that he has already offered it. In this case it is not permissible for him to shift to the ‘Asr prayer.
If a person shifts from one prayer to another in a circumstance in which shifting was not permissible, it is not far from declaring the one from which shifting has been done to be valid. So if he comes to realize it before starting any pillar, he shall be bound to perform it again as one relating to the prayer before shifting.
Problem # 14 If a person starts the two Rak’ats, for example, in the night (Tahajjud) prayer with the intention of offering the second two Rak’ats, then he realizes that he has not offered the first two Rak’ats, the prayer shall be valid, and they shall be considered to be the first two Rak’ats automatically in his account, and this shall not be a case of shifting, and there shall be no need for shifting to the second two Rak’ats, as it is not a condition for the intention to be for the first or second, but the basis is the actual position (of the prayer offered).
It is also called Takbirat al-Iftitãh, and its form consists in the words: ‘Allàh-O Akbar’, and cannot be replaced by other words, nor with words of identical meanings in Arabic, nor by words translated into a language other than Arabic. It is a pillar of the prayer, so that the prayer becomes void due to failure in reciting it deliberately or inadvertently. Similarly, by its excess, so that if a person recited the Takbirat al-Iftitãh (Takbirat al-lhrãm), and then he adds another one too, his prayer shall be rendered void, so that he shall be bound to recite a third one. If he renders void by a fourth, he shall be bound to recite a fifth one, and so on.
It is obligatory to stand erect at the time of reciting it, so that if he fails to do so deliberately or inadvertently, the prayer shall be rendered void; rather it is indispensable to stand up erect before reciting the Takbir, there being no difference in it between a follower in the prayer who joins the Jamaal in the fourth Rak’at or otherwise, but he should rather wait for some time till he is sure of having recited the Takbir completely while standing erect.
According to the more cautious opinion continuing in a standing position for some time is like standing erect as regards the rule of prayer being rendered void in case of failure to do so deliberately or inadvertently, In case he fails to continue in a standing position for some time inadvertently, to be cautious, he should do something that is repugnant to prayer, and then recite the Takbir patiently. It is more cautious than that to finish the prayer and start it again by reciting the Takbir patiently.
Problem # 1 It is more cautious to give up connecting it with what is there in the ‘Dua’ preceding it in order to omit the letter Hamzah in the word: “Allah”. Apparently it is permissible to connect it with what follows it from asking refuge (saying; I ask the refuge of Allah, in Arabic) and Bismillãh (saying: With the name of Allah, in Arabic), so that the movement on the letter “rã” in the word: “Akbar” is expressed, though it is more cautious to give it up too, in the same way as it is more cautious to pronounce emphatically the letters ‘làm’(in Allah) and ‘rã’ (in Akbar), though according to the stronger opinion, it is permissible to give it up.
Problem # 2 It is recommended to add six Takbirs to Takbirat al-Ihräm before and after it or by apportioning them before or after it. It is more cautious to precede them and make Takbirat al Ihram the seventh. It is more preferable to recite the following (in Arabic) after three Takbirs one after another, saying
“O Allah Thou art the Manifest True King. There is no god but Thou. Be thou glorified. Verily I have oppressed myself. Forgive my sin. Verily no one forgives the sins but thou.”
Then after two Takbirs, one must recite (in Arabic):“Here I am! I am at thy service repeatedly! The Blessing is in thy hand and there is no evil (that takes one) towards thee. Guided is he whom thou guideth. There is no refuge from thee but to thee. Thou art Glorified! I ask for thy Mercy. Thou art Praiseworthy. Thou art Exalted. Thou art Glorified, the Lord of the House!”
Then after two Takbirs one must say (in Arabic): “I have turned my face towards Him who has created the Heavens and Earth, Knower of the Invisible and the Apparent, as a true believer and a Muslim, and I am not one of the Polytheists. Verily my prayer, my sacrifice, my life and my death are for the Lord of the Universe. He has no partner. I have been commanded for it, and I am one of the believers”.
Then he should start asking refuge (Istiàdhah) and recitation (of the Surahs from the Qurân).
Problem # 3 It is recommended for the Imam to recite the Takbirat al-Ihram loudly, so that those who are behind him may hear it, and recite the remaining six Takbirs quietly.
Problem # 4 It is recommended to raise both the hands to both the ears at the time of reciting the Takbir or to the side of the face while starting to recite the Takbir, and end with raising the hands upto the end. It is better that both the hands should not be raised higher than both the ears, and the fingers of both the hands be joined together and their palms be towards the Qiblah.
Problem # 5 If a person recites the Takbir, and then doubts whether it was Takbirat al-Ihram or the Takbir for kneeling, he should decide in favour of the former.
Rules Concerning Qiyam (Standing Erect)
Qiyam (Standing erect) is a pillar in Takbirat al-Ihram that is close to intention (Niyyat), and in kneeling (Ruku) it means standing erect before going into the position of kneeling, so it means standing erect which is connected with kneeling. If a person fails to fulfill these two things deliberately or inadvertently, so that he recites the Takbirat al-Ihram while sitting, or offers a complete Rak'at while sitting, or while going to prostrate recollects that he has given up kneeling and stands in a bending position for keeling, or when he recollects before going into the kneeling position and continues bending without standing erect even if he has not stood up inadvertently, his prayer shall be void.
Besides these two cases, Qiyam is obligatory and not a pillar with whose failure prayer may be rendered void, except when it is done deliberately, as is the case with reciting (the Surahs from the Quran), so that if a person forgets it, and recites (the Surahs from the Quran) while sitting, and then comes to realize the failure and stands erect, his prayer shall be valid.
Similar is the case with the excess of Qiyam, so that if a person stands erect in stead of sitting, (even then his prayer shall be valid).
Problem # 2 It is obligatory to be moderate in standing erect. This depends on the special position of the person offering prayer, so that if he bends or inclines towards one of the two sides in a way that he ceases to be in a position of standing erect, his prayer shall be rendered void, rather according to the more cautious opinion, it is better to have the neck too in erect position, though, according to the stronger opinion, it is permissible to bend the head.
It is not permissible to lean against anything if possible. Of course, there is no objection in case of exigency, so that a person leans against a person or the like.
If a person can stand while leaning against something, it is not permissible for him to sit without leaning against something.
Problem # 3 While standing erect, the distance between the two feet should not so much that it may cease to be called a standing position. Rather, according to the stronger opinion, the distance should not be more than the usual, even if it is still called a standing position.
Problem # 4 It is not obligatory to bring equal weight on both the feet. Of course, it is obligatory to stand on both the feet, and not on a single foot, neither on the fingers nor on the heels of both the feet.
Problem # 5 If a person is not able to stand up at all, even if leaning against some thing, in a bending position nor with widely open feet, in short, if he is not able to stand up in any type of standing position, even in exigency in its different forms, then he may offer prayer in a sitting posture, in which position too it is a condition to sit erect and without leaning anything. So it is not permissible (while offering prayer in a sitting posture) to lean against some thing or incline to one side if sitting erect and without leaning against anything is possible for him, though it is permissible to do so in case of exigency.
If a person is not able even to sit at all (for offering prayer), he may offer prayer lying on the right side as a person buried (in the grave) position.
If he is not able even to do that, then he may lie on the left side contrary to the former position.
If this too is not possible, he may offer prayer while lying flat on the back like a person at the point of death.
Problem # 6 If a person is able to stand erect but is not able to kneel down after standing erect, he shall offer prayer in a standing posture and then go into the sitting position and kneel down while sitting.
If, however, he is not able to kneel down or prostrate at all, even in some of the easy postures of sitting, he shall offer prayer in a standing position and make sign of kneeling and prostration.
In case a person is able to sit, it is more cautious for him to make signs of prostration in a sitting position; rather, if possible, it is more cautious to put the thing on which prostration is allowed on his forehead.
Problem # 7 If a person is able to stand up in some of the Rak’ats, though not in all, it is obligatory for him to stand up until he becomes unable, and then sit down. Then if he is able to stand up again, he must stand up, and so on.
Problem # 8 It is obligatory to be patient in standing and other obligatory actions like kneeling, prostration and sitting.
If a person is unable to be patient, and he can stand up perturbed, he may precede it to sitting patiently.
Similar is the case with kneeling, Dhikr and raising the head, so that he may fulfill all these actions in a state of perturbation, but should not shift to sitting, even if he able to sit patiently.
Rules Concerning Recitation (of Quranic Surahs) and Dhikr
Problem # 1 It is obligatory to recite Surat alfatihah (Chapter 1 of the Quran) and some other complete Surah after it in the first and second Rak'ats of the obligatory (daily) prayers. A person is allowed to give up the recitation of the second Surah in certain circumstances. Rather, it is obligatory in case of the time being short for the prayer, or there being fear or the like which are among the necessary cases. If a person recites the second Surah before the Surat al fatihah deliberately, he shall have to offer the prayer again. If, however, he does so inadvertently, and recollects it before kneeling down (Ruku), then if he has not recited Surat al-Fatihah after the second Surah, he shall recite the second Surah again after reciting the Surat al-Fatihah. If he has recited Surat al-fatihah after the second Surah, he shall recite the second Surah again after reciting the Surat al-Fatihah.
Problem # 2 It is obligatory to recite Surat al-Hamd in the supererogatory prayers like the obligatory (daily) prayers, in the sense that it is a condition for their validity. As regards the recitation of the second Surah (in supererogatory) prayers, it is not obligatory in any of them, except when a prayer has become obligatory due to some other reason such as a vow or the like. Of course, in case of some of the supererogatory prayers in which some particular Surahs have been mentioned, recitation of those particular Surahs shall be a condition for the fulfillment of the vow, but it must be known that their recitation is a condition for the fulfillment of the vow, but not as a religious obligation, or for their validity.
Problem # 3 According to the stronger opinion, it is permissible to recite more than one Surah in a single Rak'at in an obligatory (daily) prayer, though with an amount of disapproval, contrary to a supererogatory prayer in which there is no disapproval (if more than one Surah is recited in a single Rak'at). It is more cautious to give up (reciting more than one Surah in a single Rak'at) in an obligatory (daily) prayer.