From the book "LIFE OF ALI"
By Syed Muhammad Raza


A short, short life of ALI (AS)




Successor & Caliph

Persecution - Hijrat



Prince of Charity Givers


Wafat(Death) of Prophet



Hadis (Sayings) of Prophet regarding ALI (AS)



The Holy Prophet has said;"The first thing God created was my Noor" and "I, Ali, Fatemah, Hassan & Hussain are from one Noor." The oldest & noblest tribe in the whole of Arabia was Bani Hashim. They were the descendants of Hazrat Ibrahim through his son Hazrat Ismail. The Arabs respected & loved them for their generosity, goodness & bravery.
Abdul Muttalib was the chieftain of Bani Hashim & he was also the guardian of the Kaaba. Among his ten sons, Abdullah was the father of the Holy Prophet & Abu Talib was the father of ALI.


Ali was born in the House of God, the Kaaba, on 13th Rajab, 23 yrs. before Hijri.
On the death of Abdul Muttalib, Abu Talib was appointed the guardian of Muhammad & was charged with the responsibility of bringing him up. Muhammad & Ali grew up in the same house. The Prophet was considerably older & he looked after & trained Ali with great Love & Care. The Apostle of Allah said that he & Ali were two pieces of the same Noor.


The infant Ali passed very happy days in the laps of his mother Fatemah Bint-e-Asad, father Abu Talib & cousin Muhammad. Under Love, care & happiness, Ali flowered into a handsome, eloquent, strong & courageous young boy of 13. At this time Muhammad started preaching Islam. Naturally Ali was the first to declare his belief in Allah & his Apostle.


According to the Holy Quran, Prophets & Apostolic Imams are chosen by God & not elected, selected, nominated or appointed by men.
When under divine instructions the prophet invited 40 Arab chieftains & delivered the message of Islam, he proclaimed Ali his successor & Caliph.
When the Holy Prophet of Islam was returning to Medina after his last pilgrimage to Mecca in 11 A.H., he, under Divine instructions, stopped at Gadir-e-Khum & in the midst of 1,24,000 Muslims, he officially & finally proclaimed Ali his Successor & Caliph.


In Mecca life for the believers & the Apostle became unbearable, owing to the cruelties & persecution of the Kafirs; so the Holy Prophet decided to migrate to Medina.
On the night of his departure from Mecca, the Prophet asked Ali to sleep in his place on his bed, so he could leave for Medina without the Kafirs having any knowledge of his absence. Though Ali knew that the house was surrendered with 40 armed enemies, he dauntlessly slept the whole night & said that he had never slept better. The Holy Prophet reached Medina safely & soon after, Ali joined the Apostle at Medina.


Mehrab main Muhammad,
Maidan main Ali,
Salwat bar Muhammad,
Sallu ala Ali.
Ali executed every order, command & injunction of the Holy Quran & the Apostle, as it should be done & none was his equal.
Khaibar shikan hai, ilm
ka dar, naieb-e-Rasool
Kis baat ki kami mere
Mushkil-Kusha main hai.


The idolaters of Mecca would not allow Islam to grow & spread in peace. Abu Sufiyan, the chieftain of the Oomayya tribe, a bitter enemy of the Holy Prophet & Islam marched to Medina at the head of 1000 well-armed & trained fighters with the intention of killing the Apostle of Allah & the believers.
The Holy Prophet collected his small band of 313 faithful followers. the defence was made up of ill-equipped fighters, including young boys & old men. Instead of waiting for the attackers, the prophet decided to meet them at a little distance from Medina at a place called Badr. The fighting was fast & furious & the Kafirs were defeated. Ali made a name for himself for his bravery. It was his sword that routed the enemy.


Next year Abu Sufiyan came again with 10,000 men. the Prophet met him at Ohad with a 1000 believers who were posted at various strategic places of defence. A few muslims were given specific instructions not to leave their position, no matter what happened.
The battle began & with the help of God, the believers inflicted heavy losses on the enemy, who began to flee. Inspite of the strict instructions of the Holy Prophet, a few Muslims deserted their post & ran after the enemy to loot.
Khalid-bin-Walid, one of the officers of Abu-Sufiyan, seeing the position occupied by Muslims undefended, attacked the Believers. Many believers were killed & a winning fight began to become a losing one. Ali came to the rescue & beat off the attack.
Hamza, the brave uncle of the Apostle was killed in action. After Hamza, Ali was the flag bearer of Islam. Ali was the only commander of the Holy Prophet during his life & no other person was given the command of the Prophet's armies in the battles in which the Holy Prophet was himself taking part. The Last Flag bearer of the Prophet was Abbas son of Ali in Karbala.


The battle of Khandak took place because Abu Sufiyan collected many infidel tribes against the Prophet & invaded Medina. To make Medina safe the Prophet ordered a trench (Khandak) to be dug around a part of the city & therefore this battle is called the battle of Khandak.In this battle the enemy warrior Amar challenged the muslims to single combat. All the companions of the Prophet were present, yet none stirred except ALI. But Muhammad restrained him. The challenge was repeated for the second time, even then noone moved to accept it but Ali. Again the Apostle stopped him. When they were challenged for the third time & again there was a silence from all & again Ali offered to face Amar, the prophet gave him the permission. The Lion of God jumped out of the Khandak & accepted the challenge. The Holy Prophet of Islam said;
"Total Iman (Faith) is now going to fight total Kufer (Disvelief) & one stroke of Ali's sword is better than all the prayers & worship of those in heaven & earth."

Ali with one stroke of the Zulfikar, killed Amar. In the general encounter the enemy was defeated too.


The Jews of Khaibar went back on their agreement with the Prophet& started harassing & killing the muslims.
An army led by the Apostle surrounded the fortresses of Khaibar. Ali was at Medina because of pain in his eyes. For many day the muslims attacked the fort but were unsuccessful. After some days the Holy Prophet declared,
"Tomorrow, I will give the flag to one who will not run away. He will attack repeatedly & Allad will crown him with victory. Allah & the Apostle are his friends & he is their friend."

Next morning soon after prayers, a horseman came galloping, a cloud of dust flying behind him. It was ALI & when he dismounted, Mohammad asked him about his eyes. When Ali said that they were still paining, the Prophet applied his saliva. The pain vainshed & Ali said that his vision had never better.
Muhammad gave the Flag of Islam to Ali & prayed for him. Ali dauntlessly marched to the fort. Murhab, the brave enemy worrior, came out to meet Ali in single combat. According to the Arab custom, Murhab talked of his deeds of bravery & said that his mother called him Murhab (Frightful) Ali retorted that his mother called him Hayder (Furious Lion).
Ali Cut Murhab into two pieces & the fort of Khaiber was conquered by Yadullah (ALI).


At Houdaibiya, Ali was asked by the Holy Prophet to draft & write the peace treaty.
On the occasion of Mobahila with Christians of Najaran, the Holy Prophet asked Ali to give them the terms of settlement.
Ali is the founder of the land revenue system which protected the rights of the tillers of the soil. He gave the world this system, for it was unknown before.
Ali is the father of the Arabic Grammer. He gave the language its grammer.
Sura-e-Barat had to be recited to the people of Mecca. Abu Baker offered to do so & started on his way. The angel jibraeel came with a message of God asking the Prophet to recall Abu Baker & to go himself or to send a person like him. As the Holy Prophet could not go he decided to send Ali, & Ali represented the Holy Prophet to carry this Sura to Quraish.


Once Ali was returning from a journey with a string of camels fully laden with goods. On the way a beggar asked for a piece of bread. Ali ordered his beloved slave Qambar to give some bread to the beggar. Qambar started searching for bread. After a few moments Ali asked about the delay. Qambar said, "I am looking for the bread." Ali said, "Give the bagger the camel which carries the food." After a while Ali again inquired about the delay. Qambar replied, "I am searching for the camel carrying the food." "Give the whole caravan", Ali ordered.
Qambar hurriedly jumped off from the camel & handed the reins of the whole caravan to the fortunate beggar.
Ali smiled at the agility of Qambar & asked him, "Why did you jump so quickly & hand over the reins in such a haste?" Qambar replied, Master, you are in such a mood that on account of a little delay, you gave away the whole caravan. I was afraid if there was some more delay, you might give me away also with the caravan. You will get a thousand slaves like me, but where will I get a master like you?"

Once, after a day's hard work, Ali was sitting under a tree & eating his barley bread & salt. A passing beggar asked him for food. Ali readily offered to share what he was eating & gave the beggar a piece of bread. The old beggar found it difficult to chew & complained that the bread was too hard. Ali informed the beggar that he would get good hot food if he cared to go to Imam Hasan's house.
When the beggar arrived at the given address, he found that a banquet was spread out & people were eating. Imam Hassan invited the beggar to join them. He started eating & after a while he would eat one mouthful & put one mouthful in his bowl. Seeing this, Imam Hasan said, "Why are you putting food in your bowl? Have your fill & then you can take some more with you." The beggar replied, "I am collecting some good food for a man, who is eating dry barley bread & salt."
Imam Hasan smiled & said, "That man is Maula Ali & this house is his house."


Under Divine instruction, the Apostle of Allah married his beloved daughter Fatemah to Ali.
Among their children children, Imam Hasan, Imam Hussain, Hazrat bibi Zainab & Hazrat bibi Ume Kulsum have left their marks on the history of the world. By Imam's other wife, Ummul Banin, Allah gave him Hazrat Abbas who was so handsome that he was fondly called Qamer-e-Bani Hasham & he personified loyalty & bravery in the battle field of Karbala.


During the last days of the month of Safar, the Prophet of Islam was very ill. The Sahabas saw that the Apostle would soon pass away.
The Arab quickly collected in the Sakifa & the gathering appointed Abu Baker as the Caliph in 11 A.D. Bani Hashim & the believers could not join the meetings at the Sakifa, as they would not leave their ailing Prophet, who passed away on 28th Safar 11 A.H. Whilst the meetings were going on the Bani Hashim & the believers had to perform their sacred duty of burying the Apostle of Allah.
The reason for this astounding happening was the desire to rule the state. In course of about 80 battles, there was not a tribe or family whose members were not killed by Ali in Jihad, though Allah & His Apostle had chosen Ali as the successor & Caliph.
When Abu Baker became a caliph he said that now he was charged with the cares of the Government, though he was not the best among them. As death approached him, he nominated Omer as his successor & caliph in 13 A.H.
For about 10 yrs., Omer was the Caliph & before his death a committee of six, selected Osman of the tribe of Bani Omayya as the third caliph in 23 A.H. Osman was killed in 35 A.H. as a result of intrigue by Merwan, his chief minister & adviser.
From Bani Omayya's tribe, Muawyya, the son of Abu Sufian, was appointed the Governor of Syria & he was responsible for the murders of Ali & Imam Hasan. Muawyya's son yazid butchered Imam Hussain, the grandson of the Holy Prophet at Karbala.


Among sufferings & chaos, the Muslims clamoured to elect Ali as the successor of the Holy Prophet & Caliph of Allah.
Looking to the condition of the society, how everyone was running after the world, Ali at first refused to accept the responsiblity of the state, but on the third day he atlast agreed to take up the charge & to accept their oath of allegiance as a Caliph.
Following in the footsteps of the Holy Prophet, Ali established the Islamic tolerance & justice, brotherhood & goodness. He re-lit the torch of Islamic learning & progress.
Ali's famous sermons & lectures given from the Mimber of Masjid-e-Kufa & on other occasions, have been published in a book called the Nahj-ul-Balagha & are worth reading.
In his rule, Ali had to make three more Jihads in the battle of JAMAL, NEHRWAN & SIFFIEN against the hypocrites, who rebelled & revolted against the commands of the Holy Quran & the Prophet of Allah.


Ali's effort to establish the Kingdom of God on earth was cut short by the assassin's sword.
Ibne-Muljim, the tool of Muawyya, murdered Ali while he was saying his morning prayers & the Sher-e-Khuda was crowned with Shahadat (martyrdom) on 21st Ramzan 40 A.H. & was buried in Najaf.
Born in the house of God, the Kaaba, & killed in the House of God, Masjid-e-Kufa, the Lion of God, the Lion-hearted & gentlest Muslim that ever lived, began his glorious life with devotion to Allah & his Apostle & ended it in the service of Islam.
"And do not speak of those who are slain in Allah's way as dead; nay (they are) alive, but you do not perceive."


Whe the Apostle led his army to Tabuk, he left Ali incharge of Medina as his Deputy, Vice-regent & Caliph. On this occasion the Apostle said,


Every God-fearing, pious, good Muslim knows ALI, the VALI-ALLAH. In every Dargah, Masjid, Namaz, Dua, Prayers, Majlis even in every step of life Ali is acknowledge as the Surtaj-e-Aula. Ali's benevolent powers are known & exprienced even today by those who love him & they will continue to be felt till the end of time. All SYED in this world are the ofspring of Imam ALI (AS).
There were many phases of Ali & no man ever knew him well. Ali, the friend of Allah, does what pleases God & God grants what pleases Ali.