This originates from a sort of "subjectivism" and "mental escape from realities" and "resorting to fancy" which is proved today in psychoanalysis. The sense does not appertain to this case. Rather, all cases in which man's desires are not satiated outwardly, and retreat to unconscious inner sense as repressed, man seeks for visionary and fanciful substitutes in order to fill the vacuum created in that respect. Sometimes, he seeks them in the dreamy world (a part of dreams are the effect of this cause).
And sometimes he seeks them in the world of "poetic imaginations" and "dreams in wakefulness", and for this reason, the able poets in whose poems there are affection, enthusiasm, influence and mirth, are those who in addition to poetic talent, have faced with the lost, disappointments and failures, fiery kindness' and unsuccessful loves, and have sought their lost and beloved one in the world of imaginations among the poetic masterstrokes and literary niceties, and thereby their imagination power has extremely developed.
In brief, "mental escape towards fancy" is the source of a lot of mental events, including suspicion, pessimism and mistrust.
2- Sometimes, the source of suspicion is impurity and taint of man, as too much optimism somewhen originates from the purity and serenity of a man. That is to say a man assumes the others good or bad based on the principle of "self comparison". This is particularly apparent in low knowledge and simple persons.
3- Excusing or reducing one's own punishment in the court of conscience is also one of the other causes of suspicion, because in this way he tries to create some partners for his offences, and suspects on the others for justifying his own ill deeds, and showing them less effective and more usual, and saying that I am not the only one being involved in this state.
4- Suspicion may originate from pride and selfishness, because such people intend to show themselves superior to the others in any way, and so try to create some weak points for the others in the environment of their mind, and devaluate them through different probabilities, and elevate their own value.
5- Educational environment and suggestions of parents and teacher are also important causes of pessimism and suspicion.
6- Association with unrighteous individuals too is one of the causes of suspicion, because the criterion for general judgements of man is often a defective induction which he makes about the individuals dealing with them, as judgements of persons about the people of a city or a village or a country is based on the special individuals having contact with them.
If the associates of a man are unrighteous, he will naturally become pessimistic to all people.
It is mentioned in Islamic traditions:
«مُجالَسَةُ الاَْشْرارِ تُورِثُ سُوءَ الظَّنِّ بِالاَْخْيارِ».
Association with evildoers causes suspicion in the righteous.(93)
7- Sometimes suspicion has a real source, that is when corruption dominates on the people of a certain time or place, so that a man becomes suspicious to every thing based on this intellectual principle that "Suspicion connects everything to its popular sample"
«الظَّنُّ يُلْحِقُ الشَيْءَ بِالاَْعَمِّ الاَْغْلَبِ».
Social losses of this moral vice are too much and its undesirable effects are widespread and extensive, such as:
1- Suspicion causes social misunderstanding, as those suffering from this condition, look everything pessimistically, and involve in numerous mistakes in recognizing the situation of individuals, events and incidents, real causes and motives of the activities occurring in the society, and live in an dreamy world against what really exist, and this "misunderstanding of realities" certainly causes retardation, non exploitation of opportunities and valuable individuals and failure before the events.
2- Suspicion and pessimism are the greatest hindrance for social cooperation as well as unity and solidarity of hearts, and lead man to an individual life, solitude, isolation and individualism and the vices caused by these attributes. Suspicion does not let man trust on the other and find the basis of cooperation with him, and solve the problems with his assistance.
3- Suspicion causes man to spy about the others and as we already referred, spying is the source of slander and its related vices. Holy Quran too has indicated to this reality in verse 12, Chambers sura.
4- Mistrust is the source of enmities, and sometimes, it is the main cause of bloody wars and battles. There are a lot of families, which are dissociated by mistrust, and there are a lot of competent and dignified men who are killed for mistrust about them! And sometimes suspicion has illuminated the flame of great wars. We read in the occasion of revelation of the noble verse:
(اِنْ جاءَكُمْ فاسِقٌ بِنَباء فَتَبَيَّنُوا اَنْ تُصِيبُوا قَوْماً بِجَهالَة فَتُصْبِحُوا عَلى ما فَعَلْتُمْ نادِمِينَ).
If an ungodly man comes to you with a tiding, make clear, lest you afflict a people unwittingly, and then repent of what you have done.
When suspicion and pessimism of "Valid Ebne Aghabeh" was about to cause destruction of a tribe, and Holy Quran prevented this great tragedy through instructing for clarification and investigation.(94)
5- Suspicion extinguishes kindness and friendship, and develops hypocrisy and dissimulation among friends, because such person has to affect friendship with his friends apparently, while his interior is not so, and has a mistrust on them, and this behavior leads to development of spirit of hypocrisy and dissimulation in him.
In summary, the social vices and losses of suspicion and mistrust are more than what are usually supposed, and what we said hereabove is actually a part of these vices.
In addition to social losses, suspicion and mistrust have a lot of irrecoverable losses to some important parts of which we will refer hereunder:
1- Mistrust is the source of spirit distress and torture of body, as well as anxiety and worry. Pessimistic people are often worried, and suffer for their imaginations about the individuals and events. They escape association with individuals, which is one of the normal and effective means of spiritual mirth, because they assume utterances or actions of people as jests and quips for themselves!
They fear of confabulation, which is a useful means for relieving pains and distresses, because they think that it may cause disclosure of their secrets and or other problems! And on this account, they are often depressed, mirthless and sad, and gradually become a useless and idle being.
If this condition of "mistrust" is intensified in man, it will become so serious that he is afraid of everything and everyone, sees all events harmful, assumes normal deeds of individuals as plans against himself, and supposes everybody determined in destruction or trouble of himself.
Obviously, this condition should be included among the mental diseases and out of ethics.
Basically, all moral vices are related to ethics until they have not passed the normal limits, and only moral trainers should treat them. But when they are abnormal, they are considered as a disease, and out of subject of ethic. Excessive envies, excessive prides, excessive spites, excessive blatancies, and such like are all included in this part.
It is interesting that in the Hypocrites sura, while mentioning the conditions of hypocrites, the issue of suspicion and mistrust are accounted among their attributes and it says: they are so suffering from suspicion that:
(... يَحْسَبُونَ كُلَّ صَيْحَة عَلَيْهِمْ).
They think every cry is against them.(95)
And this is one of their worldly punishments.
Of course, this type of suspicion is normal for evil doers, as based on the principle of "self comparison", they suppose the others are aware of their situation, and are going to punish or take vengeance on them, and consequently they always fear.
2- Mistrust about the "people" sometimes leads to mistrust and suspicion on the Creator, and also is transmitted to the basis of man's religious beliefs. Sometimes, they suspect on "Divine Justice" and sometimes in "Divine Power"!
They may also doubt in invitation of divine prophets, and in the depths of their heart, assume their invitation as a sort of histrionics for domination on people and attraction of commons, although they may apparently be faithful to the religious principles.
Non submission of most of evil doers and hypocrites to the invitation of prophets may have been caused thereof.
3- Pessimistic people are often deprived from the inner purity, because they are always slandering about the others in their heart, and thereby some of ethics scholars have called suspicion "slander with heart".
This was a part of individual losses of suspicion and pessimism.
First of all, there is a problem in this discussion that should be solved, that is:
Most often, suspicion is not a freewill affair to be avoided. Rather, in most cases, when observing a vision, or hearing an utterance, or remembering a memory (with special mental backgrounds about the other person), a suspicion appears unwillingly in man's mind. So, how it is possible to avoid it?
The following well-known tradition too proves this sense:
«ثَلاثٌ لا يَسْلُمُ مِنْها اَحَدٌ: اَلطِّيَرَةُ وَ الْحَسَدُ وَ الظَّنُّ».
There are three things that no one is secure from them: forebode, envy and suspicion.
The researchers have paced different ways for solving this problem:
1- Some believe that suspicion is not forbidden instinctively, and express the famous prophetic tradition as their proof:
«ثَلاثٌ فِي الْمُؤْمِنِ لا يُسْتَحْسَنَّ وَ لَهُ مِنْهُنَّ مَخْرَجٌ، فَمَخْرَجُهُ مِنْ سُوءِ الظَّنِّ اَنْ لا يُحَقِّقَهُ».
There are three unfavorable things in the believer, and it is possible for him to escape them, and it is possible to escape suspicion through not giving a follow-up to it.(96)
2- Some others say avoiding suspicion refers to not giving a follow-up to it heartily and outwardly. In other words, he shall not establish "heart conclusion", which is freewill, in his heart, and not to feel a hate and disgust to the suspected person, and not to change his relations and behavior with him outwardly. Thus, non-realization of suspicion refers to the same wide sense of word including mind and outward.
There is no doubt that these two are both against the appearance of the verse for avoiding suspicion and the traditions mentioned in this part, because they have forbidden suspicion itself, and there is not any hearty establishment aspect to be evitable.
But the issue of belief and hearty establishment is a freewill affair (because belief and faith is something else than knowledge, as it has been already proved), but hate and disgust are not so.
3- The reality is that although suspicion is not voluntary at the beginning, but its continuation is optional, because it usually originates from a series of unreal factors that cause such a supposition due to precipitancy and hurry in judgement. Hence, one can soon avoid it through thinking and studying about the matter, and subtilizing in different probabilities, and thus it is greatly emphasized in the narrations and traditions that a man should try and do his best for finding correct probabilities in the Moslems affairs, and avoid primary perspectives.
Imam Ali A.S. says:
«وَلا تَظُنَّنَّ بِكَلِمَة خَرَجَتْ مِنْ اَخِيكَ سُوءاً وَ اَنْتَ تَجِدُ لَها فِي الْخَيْرِ مَحْمِلا».
Do not suspect on the utterance, which you hear from your brother as far as you find a proper way for it.(97)
Therefore, only sudden hearty perspectives are out of will, but stable and durable suspicion is a freewill affair, and this sense is completely compatible with the appearance of the noble verse, traditions concerning forbiddance of suspicion.
Seemingly, the phrase:
«كَذِّبْ سَمْعَكَ وَ بَصَرَكَ عَنْ اَخِيكَ».
Deny your eye and ear about your brother.(98)
which is narrated from Imam Sadegh A.S. addressing Mohammad Ebne Fosail, may refer to attempt for finding proper senses and avoiding primary perspectives.
Now that the meaning of forbiddance of suspicion is made clear, it is the time of referring to the methods of treating it.
As we have repeatedly said, we shall always seek the way of treating mental, physical and moral diseases in the causes of their appearance.
On this account, considering the discussion we made in respect to the sources and factors of suspicion, we conclude that:
1- For removing suspicion, first of all we shall engage in correcting ourselves so that if we compare the others with ourselves, it does not cause assuming them vicious and evil doer, and also when we are correcting ourselves, we shall remind always this point to ourselves that it is not correct to assume the others like ourselves. They may possess mentalities much superior and better than us. We shall pay attention that self-comparison which may be one of the aspects of man's self-love, has no logic and scientific foundation, and should not be considered as the basis of our judgement about the others.
2- We shall purify our environment which may be the source of our suspicion and mistrust, and leave off association with the evil doers which may be the source of suspicion on good doers, and note that such poisonous associations, in addition to their other numerous disadvantages, darken the environment of our mind in evaluation of personality of others, and lead us to great mistakes in identification of individuals. These mistakes not only cause moral and spiritual losses, but also deprive us from exploitation of mental and moral resources of competent individuals due to suspicion.
If our educational environment in the childhood has been unhealthy in this respect, we shall wash away the effects of childhood period from our mind through suggestion and studying the conditions of good doers, and association with the pure persons, for compensation of the suggestions causing our present pessimism.
3- We shall regularly envisage the individual and social losses of mistrust and the great dangers threatening us and the society in this way, and repeatedly remember the previous discussions which we had in this respect, and consider this reality that if mistrust is temporarily effective in relieving our "sense of vengeance" or "selfishness", and creates a false transitory peace in us, it has also irrecoverable losses for us which are not comparable with its assumed advantages.
4- If the source of our suspicion and pessimism is moral deviations of others, malice and selfishness, justification of our evil deeds and escaping the chastisement of conscience, we shall become aware of these sources in our mental analysis, and transfer these factors from the mind's unconscious stage to conscious stage.
Since this point is very important in treating moral deviations that when incentives from mind's unconscious stage influence on the deeds and thoughts of man, we shall transfer them to conscious stage through psychoanalysis. It has a deep impression in improvement of our status, and pay attention that this issue is greatly discussed and concerned in the present psychoanalysis.
At the end of discussion about suspicion, it is noteworthy that suspicion and mistrust is logical only when majority of individuals are deviated and corrupted in an environment. In such case, one can not have good opinion on the dubious person based on probabilities; because the possibility of corruption about each person is more, but it should be notified that in such environments too, man shall not take into consideration his suspicion save in what is concerned with precautionary aspects. In other words, while observing necessary precautions, one shall avoid affectation to the deeds with the savour of suspicion and mistrust on the individuals, and this possibility should never be neglected that the suspected person may be one of the righteous minority of the society, and this attitude should be restricted to those vices which have involved majority of society. But, in other cases, good opinion should be completely observed.
The famous tradition narrated from Imam Ali A.S. may refer to the same reality, where it says:
«اِذَا اسْتَوْلَى الْفَسادُ عَلَى الزَّمانِ فَاَحْسَنَ رَجُلٌ الظَّنَّ بِرَجُل فَقَدْ غَرِرَ».
When corruption breaks out at a time, good opinion of individuals to each other causes being deceived.(99)
* Without ethic, the plan of a healthy society is defeated
* Privileges of man's social life
* Source of formation of society
* Social value
* Islam and social concerns
* Social seclusion
* Islam and monkery
* Monkery among Christians
We know that man has a social life, and undoubtedly, "society" is the most important factor in development, improvement and or retardation and degeneration of men.
The sociologists believe that man without society loses everything (sciences and knowledge, mental perfection, affections, and even speaking and similar subjects).
The situation of children being isolated from the human society for any reason, and trained in an inhuman environment, like "forest", besides wild animals, proves this matter. In history, we have repeatedly observed such children. Neither they could speak and comprehend high concepts of human life, nor there was any trace of humanistic affections in them, and their behavior and deed was just like wild animals of forest!
Observing the situation of desert wanderers and nomadic tribes, whose society is very limited and small, and their communication with others is less, is a good proof for showing that if man loses the society, what will be his destiny!
This and a lot of other evidences exactly approve the belief of sociologists that "society is prior to the individual". Of course, an individual as a "living being" may be prior to the society, but as a "human", he will not be prior to the society.
And also for this reason, the more social relations of man develop, the more his civilization, although in special aspects, improves.
Facility of communication tools in the present world, which has caused more proximity and contact of individuals, is one of the main causes of formation of present civilization, and also is considered as a criterion for assessment of degree of civilization in different countries of world.
Of course, social life is not restricted to man, because we know a group of insects as "social insects", like honey bee and termite, which enjoy a considerably respectable social life, and there is also a group of "social birds" among the birds, like swallows and storks, and there is a class of "social animals" among the wild animals like most of monkeys.
Social life of such animals may be even more developed than men in some aspects. For example, in the beehive even does not exist an idle and hungry one, while it is not so in the most developed industrial countries of world.